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A Groundwater Monitoring Design through Site Characterization, Numerical Simulation and Statistical Analysis – A North American Case Study

I. Maqsood, G. H. Huang* and Y. F. Huang

Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada

*Corresponding author. Email:


Groundwater monitoring facilitates efficient aquifer remediation to better protect the public health and the environment. An efficient design could answer important monitoring-data questions, such as (a) is the trend in the groundwater data significant; (b) how important is each well in the trend analysis; (c) what is the suggested future monitoring well density, sampling frequency and duration; (d) what contaminants of concern need to be monitored at the site; and (e) what depth is appropriate to take samples. In this study, groundwater-monitoring plans are designed for a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. The plans are based on the site characterization, contaminants transport modeling in groundwater under various remediation scenarios, and optimization of the monitoring network using the existing site infrastructure and statistical trend analysis. The plans can reflect dynamic characteristics of the site and present a declining pattern of sampling frequency associated with a rising trend of the site restoration. The study provides bases for long-term monitoring decisions at contaminated sites.

Keywords: Contamination, groundwater, monitoring design, numerical simulation, remediation, site characterization

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