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Saving Water and Associated Energy from Distribution Networks by Considering Landscape Factors in Pressure Management and Use of District Metered Areas
Controlling water loss in distribution systems is attracting increasing interest due to our increasingly limited water resources, exacerbated by rapid population growth, fast urbanization and climate change. Much has been invested in the management of water distribution networks to reduce water loss. However, the efficiency of management measures depends on spatiotemporal patterns of water loss, which are significantly influenced by the urban landscape. It is therefore important to consider urban landscape factors when designing and operating water distribution networks in order to reduce water loss and energy consumption. We investigated how the urban landscape, in particular urban topography and layout of water end users, impacts water loss and energy consumption. Topography was found to significantly influence the spatial pattern of average water pressure, while layout of end users influenced temporal variation of water pressure. A two-level water distribution network operating scheme (PMZ-DMA) was proposed to account for the influences of the two urban landscape factors. Application of the scheme efficiently reduced water loss, thereby generating significant environmental benefits, including reduction of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Keywords: water loss control, water distribution network, urban landscape, energy consumption reduction, greenhouse gas emission reduction
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